The Independent Scholar (TIS), the quarterly publication of the National Coalition of Independent Scholars, welcomes NCIS members’ original scholarly essays as well as other contributions on subjects relevant to our members — whose wide-ranging research spans the humanities, social sciences, and sciences — and to a general, scholarly audience. TIS also seeks to publish NCIS members’ creative endeavours in the literary or visual arts. Members are also encouraged to send in announcements of their publications, presentations, and other scholarly accomplishments. TIS also accepts for consideration news of appropriate competitions, meetings, awards, events, conferences, calls for papers, or publications. Submissions should be written with clarity and grace and must conform to pertinent, accepted citation and style guidelines. Authors should adhere to the rules of English (American or British) grammar, spelling, and punctuation. Preferred length for submissions is around 3,000 words; please discuss longer submissions with the editor. All contributions must be submitted electronically as a Word file (.doc or .docx), a Rich Text Format file (.rtf), or in another MS Word-compatible configuration. PLEASE USE AS LITTLE FORMATTING AS POSSIBLE — footnotes and endnotes are acceptable, but please do not include page numbers, use non-standard fonts, pre-set tabs, etc. Please provide English translations for any text, passages, quotations, titles, etc., in another language. Those who wish to earn the esteem of the editor will also double-space, indent paragraphs and eschew spaces between them, use only one space between sentences, and employ a twelve-point font, ideally (but not necessarily) Palatino. The Independent Scholar takes first publication rights, and reserves the right to publish, publicize, and disseminate all accepted submissions; all other rights remain with the authors. No part of this publication may be reproduced without permission, except for brief quotations in reviews and critical writings. The editor reserves the right to make minor adjustments to the manuscript for clarity and consistency. Substantive changes and revisions will be the responsibility of the author. The editor and The Independent Scholar assume no responsibility for contributors’ errors. Opinions expressed in items published in TIS reflect those of their authors and are not necessarily those of the editor, the NCIS board, or the general membership of NCIS. Please send manuscripts and questions to the editor, Kendra Leonard, at firstname.lastname@example.org, and use “TIS Submission” for the Subject line.